Some decades ago there was a T. V. program called "dragnet" and featured a detective named "Joe Friday". Those old enough can recall him saying "the facts, just the facts mam". In the spirit of Joe Friday the following are some facts relating to the Jewish calculated calendar --- just the facts.
Regretfully, this paper is much longer than I expected it to be. There are so many facts. I hope for your patience in reading it.
Fact: Leviticus 23 gives very detailed instruction from God to Moses regarding the months and days to keep the " holy convocations, which ye shall proclaim in their seasons".
Lev 23:1 And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying,
Lev 23:2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, Concerning the feasts of the LORD, which ye shall proclaim to be holy convocations, even these are my feasts.
feasts; H4150 mô‛êd From H3259; properly an appointment, that is, a fixed time or season;
Fact: Genesis 1:14 gives comprehensive instruction for a calendar through the observation of various LIGHTS.
Gen 1:14 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:
signs; H226, (a signal) seasons; H4150, (an appointment,
specifically a feast) year; H8141 from H8138; a year (as a revolution
of time): -
How can one not see that it is "light" that forms the basis of Gods calendar. Light makes it possible to keep track of days. It is light that makes it possible to keep track of months. Through the knowledge of the beginning of a month (by the use of light) we can keep the holy days at their appointed times. And finally, it also light that makes it possible to observe the "signal" of the beginning of the year, which is the vernal equinox. The ancients used a sun dial for observing that signal.
Psalm 104:19 He appointed the moon for seasons (H4150): the sun knoweth his going down.
Fact: Jesus respected the original instruction as written by Moses including the calendar with no objections to observing the new moon. Also, Jesus observed the Passover at the correct time using the observed new moon as the basis of determining the months.
Mat 5:17 Think not that I am come to destroy the law, or the prophets: I am not
come to destroy, but to fulfil.
Fact: The observation of the calendar that Moses wrote of (Gen. 1:14) was in place at the time of the second temple.
NSW Board Of Jewish Education; Rosh Chodesh
"Before the era of the fixed calendar, Jews used to determine the beginning of a new month using eyewitnesses. At the end of a 29-day period, witnesses would observe the moon in order to see if it had reappeared or not. These witnesses would then tell the judges of the religious court (Sanhedrin) what they had seen, and the rabbis would decide whether or not the observations were satisfactory. (If they were not satisfied, then that day was added to the number of the expiring month and the next day became the start of the new month. In a case such as this one, the 30th day of the previous month as well as the first day of the next month would be Rosh Chodesh.)
The Jews would then be told, and the new month would be signalled by torches being lit on hilltops. Jews in other communities would see the torches and in turn would light their torches and so on, thus spreading news of the new month quickly until everyone knew it was Rosh Chodesh.
These days, the Sanhedrin no longer exists and the date of the new moon is no longer determined by observation but instead by calculation. When the moon is exactly between the earth and the sun, the new month begins (called molad in Hebrew, meaning ‘birth)."
Hebrew Roots\New Moon; sighting the new moon
“In the times of the Second Temple it appears from the Mishnah (R. H. i. 7) that the priests had a court to which witnesses came and reported. This function was afterward taken over by the civil court (see B. Zuckermann, “Materialien zur Entwicklung der Altjüdischen Zeitrechnung im Talmud, “Breslau, 1882). The fixing of the lengths of the months and the intercalation of months was the prerogative of the Sanhedrin, at whose head there was a patriarch or THÑb. The entire Sanhedrin was not called upon to act in this matter, the decision being left to a special court of three. The Sanhedrin met on the 29th of each month to await the report of the witnesses."
Fact: Polycarp (first generation after John) maintained the teachings of John which would include keeping the calendar in the manner of the time of the second temple
Irenaeus, considered to be a saint by Church of Rome and Eastern Orthodox, claimed to have met Polycarp and recorded this about Polycarp (c. 180 A.D.):
"But Polycarp also was not only instructed by apostles, and conversed with many who had seen Christ, but was also, by apostles in Asia, appointed bishop of the Church in Smyrna…always taught the things which he had learned from the apostles, and which the Church has handed down, and which alone are true. To these things all the Asiatic Churches testify, as do also those men who have succeeded Polycarp down to the present time...There is also a very powerful Epistle of Polycarp written to the Philippians, from which those who choose to do so, and are anxious about their salvation, can learn the character of his faith, and the preaching of the truth (Irenaeus. Adversus Haeres. Book III, Chapter 3, Verse 4)."
The Catholic saint and doctor of that church, Jerome reported the following:
"Polycarp disciple of the apostle John and by him ordained bishop of Smyrna was chief of all Asia, where he saw and had as teachers some of the apostles and of those who had seen the Lord. He, on account of certain questions concerning the day of the Passover, went to Rome in the time of the emperor Antoninus Pius while Anicetus ruled the church in that city. There he led back to the faith many of the believers who had been deceived through the persuasion of Marcion and Valentinus, and when Marcion met him by chance and said "Do you know us" he replied, "I know the firstborn of the devil." Afterwards during the reign of Marcus Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus in the fourth persecution after Nero, in the presence of the proconsul holding court at Smyrna and all the people crying out against him in the Amphitheater, he was burned. He wrote a very valuable Epistle to the Philippians which is read to the present day in the meetings in Asia. (Jerome. De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men), Chapter 17. Translated by Ernest Cushing Richardson. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 3. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/2708.htm>.)"
Fact: Jesus kept a different Passover than the Jews (John 2:13). Quartodecimanism refers to the Passover Jesus kept.
From Widipedea: The term "Quartodecimanism" (from the Vulgate Latin quarta decima in Leveticus 23:5, meaning fourteenth) refers to the custom of early Christians celebrating Passover beginning with the eve of the 14th day of Nison (or Aviv in the Hebrew Bible ), which at dusk is biblically the "Lord's passover"
Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus (130-196 A.D.)
“As for us, then, we scrupulously observe the exact day, neither adding nor taking away. For in Asia great luminaries have gone to their rest, who shall rise again in the day of the coming of the Lord, when He cometh with glory from heaven and shall raise again all the saints. I speak of Philip, one of the twelve apostles, who is laid to rest at Hierapolis; and his two daughters, who arrived at old age unmarried; his other daughter also, who passed her life under the influence of the Holy Spirit, and reposes at Ephesus; John, moreover, who reclined on the Lord’s bosom, and who became a priest wearing the mitre, and a witness and a teacher-he rests at Ephesus. Then there is Polycarp, both bishop and martyr at Smyrna; and Thraseas from Eumenia, both bishop and martyr, who rests at Smyrna. Why should I speak of Sagaris, bishop and martyr, who rests at Laodicea? of the blessed Papirius, moreover? and of Melito the eunuch, who performed all his actions under the influence of the Holy Spirit, and lies at Sardis, awaiting the visitation from heaven, when he shall rise again from the dead?
These all kept the passover on the fourteenth. day of the month, in accordance with the Gospel, without ever deviating from it, but keeping to the rule of faith. -------------"We ought to obey God rather than men."
Fact: Spokesmen for the Jewish calculated calendar refutes the forgoing statement ---”“In the times of the Second Temple it appears from the Mishnah (R. H. i. 7) that the priests had a court to which witnesses came and reported. The new moon was reckoned by actual personal observation, not by astronomical calculation”.
The Hebrew Calendar Parts 1 & 2 by John Ogwyn
"Please understand, if there is one calendar that we can absolutely prove that Christ and the Apostolic Church DID NOT use, it is one based on satellite observation! The only calculated calendar that could possibly be used until after about 1968 was one based upon the average length of time between conjunctions."
(the conjunction is when the moon is not visible)
The Hebrew Calendar-Authoritative for God's Church Today
By Herman L. Hoeh --- quoting Herbert W. Armstrong
“In conclusion, unless God has preserved His sacred calendar through the Jews, then we do not know how to figure Passover or any of the Holy Days this year. For there is no authority for any other way”.
Fact: Oracles (utterances or words of God) were given to the Jews and later used by the church. Of the most important of “oracles” was the calendar provided by Genesis 1:14.
Oracle: G3051 Neuter of G3052; an utterance (of God).
Rom 3:1 What advantage then hath the Jew? or what profit is there of circumcision?
Rom 3:2 Much every way: chiefly, because that unto them were committed the oracles of God.
Exo 24:3 And Moses came and told the people all the words of the LORD, and all the judgments: and all the people answered with one voice, and said, All the words which the LORD hath said will we do. Exo 24:4 And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the hill, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel.
1Pe 4:11 If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
Fact: The institution of the Jewish oral law, used by some to give credibility to the Jewish calendar, is refuted by Jesus as being “traditions of men”. (statements regarding the “Hebrew calendar” refers to the “Jewish calculated calendar”)
The Hebrew Calendar --- Herman Hoeh Good News April 1981
"But what were the oracles committed in a public way to the Jews? The Hebrew Bible only? By no means! The Hebrew calendar also. These three --- Bible, calaendar and week---- are all part of the oracles committed to the Jews for all mankind. " (the seven day week with the Sabbath being the seventh day has been maintained by the Jews and Christianity)
This clearly shows that Herman Hoeh literally places the Jewish creation of a calendar as an equal authority to the word of God. He declares that the Jewish oracles are the equivalent to the oracles of God. There is no utterance of God that relates, in any way, to the Jewish ("Hebrew") calculated calendar.
John Plunkett Building bridges Church of God Canada
"Mishnah: From Moses until Rabbi Judah the Prince (Rabbenu Hakadosh) the traditional laws were thus learnt by heart and handed down from generation to generation orally.
But what are the Talmud and the Mishnah? Are they not Holy Scripture – on a par with the Torah and the Tanakh? No, they are not! The Torah – or Pentateuch – is a collective term for the first five books of the Holy Bible, inspired by God and written, we believe, by Moses. The Tanakh – or Masoretic Text – refers to the whole inspired Hebrew Bible (which, of course, includes the five books of the Torah).
The Talmud and the Mishnah, however, are not inspired scripture. They are codifications of the Traditions of the Elders – human opinions. The Talmud is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history. The Mishnah is the first major written redaction (edited version) of the Jewish oral traditions. The discussion, recording and editing of these humanly devised ideas was part of the scribes job and this was likely what brought them under Jesus’ ire.
It is interesting that, during Jesus’ human lifetime, it was the Sadducees – not the Pharisees – who ruled the temple and the religious life of the people. As we have seen, the Pharisees’ accent was on the oral law, the Traditions of the Elders including the Talmud and the Mishnah. Although according to Jesus’ words, the Sadducees were still far from perfect and deserving of just criticism, they did at least rely on the written scriptures more so than did their Pharisee brethren."
Steven Doggart --- Christianity
"At the time of Christ, the largest proponents of the Oral Law were the Pharisees. On multiple occasions, the Pharisees caught Jesus breaking some of the Oral Laws and confronted Him about it in order to discredit His ministry. Jesus responded by calling the Oral Law "traditions of men". For instance, in the following passages, the Pharisees confronted Jesus because he was breaking the Oral Laws regarding the washing of your hands before eating (these oral hand-washing laws were written down, a couple of centuries later, in the mishnah) "
Mat 15:1 Then came to Jesus scribes and Pharisees, which were of Jerusalem, saying,
Mat 15:2 Why do thy disciples transgress the tradition of the elders? for they wash not their hands when they eat bread.
Mat 15:3 But he answered and said unto them, Why do ye also transgress the commandment of God by your tradition?
Fact: The authority to make changes to the oracles of God (Biblical instruction from God which includes the calendar instruction) and the historical practices to fulfill that instruction has been given to NO ONE.
(The following is directed to the Jews who persecuted Jesus, and sought to slay him, because he had healed a man on the sabbath day).
Joh 5:26 For as the Father hath life in himself; so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself;
Joh 5:27 And hath given him authority to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man.
Joh 5:30 I can of mine own self do nothing: as I hear, I judge: and my judgment is just; because I seek not mine own will, but the will of the Father which hath sent me.
Joh 5:45 Do not think that I will accuse you to the Father: there is one that accuseth you, even Moses, in whom ye trust.
Joh 5:47 But if ye believe not his writings, how shall ye believe my words? (his writings included God's calendar)
Joh 8:13 The Pharisees therefore said unto him, Thou bearest record of thyself; thy record is not true.
Joh 8:43 Why do ye not understand my speech? even because ye cannot hear my word.
Joh 8:44 Ye are of your father the devil, and the lusts of your father ye will do. He was a murderer from the beginning, and abode not in the truth, because there is no truth in him. When he speaketh a lie, he speaketh of his own: for he is a liar, and the father of it.
Joh 8:45 And because I tell you the truth, ye believe me not.
2Co 2:9 For to this end also did I write, that I might know the proof of you, whether ye be obedient in all things. (which would include the God given calendar)
Fact: Many, if not most members of the Sabbath and holy day keeping "Churches of God", at this time, ascribe to the belief that today's churches leadership posses the authority to follow after changes to Biblical instruction and to disregard historical facts.
Herbert W. Armstrong (from The Hebrew Calendar)
“God did not commit His oracles or the preservation of His times to profane history....they have been preserved by the Jews”
(from the United Church of God; Summary of the Hebrew Calendar)
"After an intensive study, which included the assistance of members in the Eugene congregation, he (Mr. Armstrong) came to the conclusion that the current Hebrew calendar should be accepted by the Church of God".
"We have no reason to believe that the Church has ever used anything but the Hebrew calendar through the centuries."
1Th 2:13 For this cause also thank we God without ceasing, because, when ye received the word of God which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe.
Fact: Jesus, Lord of the old testament, who became our Messiah changes not. Gods calendar exists today!
Heb 13:7 Remember them which have the rule over you, who have spoken unto you the word of God: whose faith follow, considering the end of their conversation.
Heb 13:8 Jesus Christ the same yesterday, and to day, and for ever.
Heb 13:9 Be not carried about with divers and strange doctrines. For it is a good thing that the heart be established with grace; not with meats, which have not profited them that have been occupied therein.
Jas 1:16 Do not err, my beloved brethren.
Jas 1:17 Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, and cometh down
from the Father of lights, with whom is no variableness, neither shadow of
Jas 1:18 Of his own will begat he us with the word of truth, that we should
be a kind of firstfruits of his creatures.
Fact: Again, Jesus changes not!
Isa 66:22 For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I will make, shall
remain before me, saith the LORD, so shall your seed and your name remain.
Isa 66:23 And it shall come to pass, that from one new moon to another, and
from one sabbath to another, shall all flesh come to worship before me, saith the
Isa 66:24 And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the men that have
transgressed against me: for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be
quenched; and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh.
Eze 46:1 Thus saith the Lord GOD; The gate of the inner court that looketh
toward the east shall be shut the six working days; but on the sabbath it shall be
opened, and in the day of the new moon it shall be opened. (This is in
reference to the millennial temple described by Ezekiel chapters 40-46)
Eze 46:3 Likewise the people of the land shall worship at the door of this gate
before the LORD in the sabbaths and in the new moons.
Fact: The word of God is the authority that we have the responsibility to live our lives by.
Mat 4:4 But he answered and said, It is written, Man shall not live by bread alone, but by every word that proceedeth out of the mouth of God.
1Th 2:12 That ye would walk worthy of God, who hath called you unto his kingdom and glory. 1Th 2:13 For this cause also thank we God without ceasing, because, when ye received the word of God which ye heard of us, ye received it not as the word of men, but as it is in truth, the word of God, which effectually worketh also in you that believe.
Fact: We have been called to the unique challenge of understanding the utterances of God and living by them in completion.
Luke 1:3 It seemed good to me also, having had perfect (exact) understanding of all things from the very first, to write unto thee in order, most excellent Theophilus, (this being the time of the second temple)
Mat 5:48 Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect (complete).
Rom 12:2 And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect (complete), will of God.
Fact: Jews and Christians both use new moon observation for the basis of determining the time of annual holy days.
Gavin Finley MD endtimepilgrim.org
"The setting forth of a rigid Hebrew calendar had become a necessity in view of the Judaic priesthood adopting an elitist attitude and hiding this calendar information from God's covenant people. Y'hovah-God had always intended for family members to come to know Him and His Word and to be a nation of kings and priests before Him. But they had lost this somewhere down the line. And now they depended on the Rabbinical priesthood to answer all their questions. But after the fall of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. big problems arose. The Sanhedrin was outlawed by the Romans. This which made calendar authorizations across the nations very difficult for Jews in the Diaspora. They were unsure of when and how to place the annual holy days and festivals. But setting the calendar monthly by new moon sightings and annually by reckoning the month of Nisan as the first moon to achieve fullness after the Roman March 21 Spring equinox would not have been too difficult for them. Isolated Jewish heads of families with this simple knowledge could have set the Hebrew calendar by the sun and moon within a two day accuracy and do it quite reliably. The Karaite Jews and some Christians pursuing their Hebrew roots do this even today."
Fact: It took centuries for the Jews to develop their calculated calendar which is in use today
Christian Churches of God
"Many false statements are made by these various ministers of the WCG system. Much of it is through ignorance, but much of it also is by devious deceit. We have seen some of these people actually claim that the Hillel calendar was in use at the time of Christ in the Temple, when any basic student of the subject would tell you it was not introduced until two rabbis brought it from Babylon in 344 CE and Hillel II authorised its use in 358 CE. It was developed from there on until Maimonides or Rambam in the twelfth century. The Jews themselves proclaim those facts in their reference material."
Fact: The Jewish calculated calendar requires very complicated mathematical calculations. The following are excerpts from THE HEBREW CALENDAR: A Mathematical Introduction by JOHN A. KOSSEY Editor: HERMAN L. HOEH
Since it is the responsibility of the Church to announce the time of each festival to the congregations, detailed understanding of the Hebrew calendar is not even necessary for a lay church member. When a holy day is to be dept is not for the individual Christian to decide.
In order for you to become adept with calendar calculations, you must become very familiar with a minimal number of time relationships.
1 part=76 moments 1 hour=1080 parts 1 day=24hours 1 week=7 days 1 lunar month=29 days 12 hours 793 parts ------- etc. etc.
Although each day begins at sunset, 6PM is the arbitrary commencement of a new day for calendar calculations.
Addition: The key rests in one simple rule – add only likes together.
Reduction: Before attempting to subtract or multiply these numbers it will be helpful for you to understand how they are reduced.
Multiplication: After adding days, hours, and parts, you will find that multiplication is quite easy.
You may want to verify that an average common year has 354d 8h 876p. (This is worth remembering).
Subtraction: This is the most error-prone operation for many students. The last complication to hurdle with subtraction is negative numbers. All that it means is time before a prescribed reference point.
Why do you need to be concerned with the molad (dark of the moon) of Tishri? The answer is that you must know when it occurs before you can determine the date of the Festival of Trumpets.
One particularly important time interval will occur throughout your experience with the Hebrew calendar. In order to calculate the molad Tishri, one will be working with two molads:
The reason why we arbitrarily begin Sunday as 1 day 0 hours 0 parts is so that there will be an exact coincidence with the days of the week. For the same reason of simplicity, we begin the day with midnight instead of 6PM so far as the calculations are concerned.
This is a basic sampling of the 95 pages of instruction, calculations and charts in this mathematical introduction to the Jewish calculated calendar. It is an exercise in “mathematics”. Light is never a consideration.
Fact: With all the work the Jews put into their calendar effort they fell short of perfection.
Yahweh's Assembly in Yahshua
"Interestingly, some proponents of the Jewish calendar would have us believe that this calendar was given directly from Yahweh and is infallible. The Jewish Encyclopedia admits, “Insignificant as these differences may appear, they will cause a considerable divergence in the relations between Nisan, and spring as time goes on, and may require a Pan-Judaic Synod to adjust,” ibid.
Had Yahweh indeed inspired this Jewish calendar, we who believe and rely upon His Word know there would be no reason to adjust or change anything He had made, for He makes everything perfect. Therefore, the present Hillel II Jewish calendar cannot be inspired of Yahweh. It is a masterpiece of man, but being of man, is fallible and indeed contains error."
Fact: We are spoken to so clearly of the “simplicity” of the ways of Jesus.
2Co 11:3 But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtilty, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ.
God's calendar is superb in its simplicity and perfection. We are well aware of God's instruction for the beginning and ending of days. We know precisely the days of the month when the holy days occur. The first day of the first month begins with the new moon (as seen where ever you are on earth) after the spring equinox. From equinox to the following equinox there will be either 12 or 13 new moons (months). Each month will have 29 days or no more than 30 days. If for reason of nearness to conjunction or for weather one can not see the new moon on the 29th day the 30th day becomes the beginning of the next month. This is the calendar that God ordained in Genesis 1:14 and the calendar that Jesus observed.
Fact: Truth must be the genesis of obedience --- and doctrine be the child of the will of God. Through truth, obedience and doctrine we strive for unity.
Act 17:10 And the brethren immediately sent away Paul and Silas by night unto
Berea: who coming thither went into the synagogue of the Jews.
Act 17:11 These were more noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they received
the word with all readiness of mind, and searched the scriptures daily,
whether those things were so.
2Co 2:9 For to this end also did I write, that I might know the proof of you,
whether ye be obedient in all things.
1Pe 1:22 Seeing ye have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the
Spirit unto unfeigned love of the brethren, see that ye love one another with a pure
Joh 7:17 If any man will do his will, he shall know of the doctrine, whether it be
of God, or whether I speak of myself.
2Ti 3:16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for
doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:
Eph 4:11 And he gave (including Polycarp) some, apostles; and some, prophets;
and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers;
Eph 4:12 For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the
edifying of the body of Christ:
Eph 4:13 Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the
Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of
Eph 4:14 That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried
about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness,
whereby they lie in wait to deceive;
Eph 4:15 But speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things,
which is the head, even Christ:
Fact: We may strive for unity yet unity will not be realized until Jesus returns to receive and marry his bride.
The words true and truth in the old and new testaments were used 369 times. The
word unity and any associated phrase relating to unity in regard to a group of
"people" being in unity was never used. In referencing Eph. 4:11-13 the
statement "till we all come in the unity of the faith", clearly shows that they not in unity
at the time Paul wrote that letter. History also clearly shows that the unity, referred to
in Ephesians, has not occurred. But it will occur. That will only be at the coming of
Jesus the Christ when we receive "the measure of the stature of the fulness of
Christ". Truth, or that which is true in this age, has been relegated to the
machinations of the mind of man.
Most of those who subscribe to the Jewish fixed calendar will give great acclaim to
the wonderful virtue it possesses in providing stability to an otherwise "potentially
confusing subject". And they say that stability can result in unity for us as it has
for the Jewish people through the centuries. There is no question that God desires
unity in the church but there is also no question that that unity must be based on
the unifying force of truth.
Fact: As David understood his need for the guidance of God we too may look forward to be nourished, in truth, by God.
Psa 143:8 Cause me to hear thy loving-kindness in the morning; for in thee do I
trust: cause me to know the way wherein I should walk; for I lift up my soul unto
Psa 43:3 O send out thy light and thy truth: let them lead me; let them bring me
unto thy holy hill, and to thy tabernacles.
Psa 25:5 Lead me in thy truth, and teach me: for thou art the God of my
salvation; on thee do I wait all the day.